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Introduction to ax High-Efficiency Wireless - National Instruments

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Key IEEE User 1 would contend for access to the medium with other users in its own BSS and then exchange data with its AP. However, this user would still be able to hear traffic from the overlapping BSS on the right. Figure 3. Medium access inefficiency from overlapping BSS. This kind of situation results in users having to wait longer for their turn to transmit, effectively lowering their average data throughput. A third factor to consider is the shared use of wider channels.

Introduction to 802.11ax High-Efficiency Wireless

For example, for Figure 4. Example Planning dense coverage with a reduced number of channels becomes very difficult, forcing network managers to reuse channels in nearby cells. Without careful and deliberate power management, users will experience co-channel interference, which degrades performance and negates much of the expected gain from the wider channels. This is especially true for the top data rates of MCS 8, 9, 10, and 11, which are much more susceptible to low signal to noise ratio.

Also, on the current implementation of Implementing However, it maintains backward compatibility with These legacy clients will also be able to demodulate and decode The following table highlights the most important changes to this revision of the standard, in contrast to the current Notice that the The specification defines a four times larger FFT, multiplying the number of subcarriers.

However, one critical change with Figure 5. Narrower sub-carrier spacing.

The OFDM symbol duration and cyclic prefix also increased 4X, keeping the raw link data rate the same as Nevertheless, the standard does specify QAM and smaller cyclic prefix ratios for indoor environment, which will increase the maximum data rate. Under this procedure, the beamformer initiates a channel sounding procedure with a Null Data Packet. The beamformee measures the channel and responds with a beamforming feedback frame, containing a compressed feedback matrix.

The beamformer uses this information to compute the channel matrix, H. The beamformer can then use this channel matrix to focus the RF energy toward each user. Single User: in this sequential mode the wireless STAs send and receive data one at a time once they secure access to the medium, as this paper has described above. The standard divides this mode further into Downlink and Uplink Multi-user.

For both of these methods, the AP acts as the central controller of all aspects of multi-user operation, similar to how an LTE cellular base station controls the multiplexing of many users. An Borrowing from the That is, the AP will calculate a channel matrix for each user and steer simultaneous beams to different users, each beam containing specific packets for its target user.

By way of analogy, when using MU-MIMO spatial multiplexing, the AP could be compared to an Ethernet switch that reduces the collision domain from a large computer network to a single port.


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When the multiple users respond in unison with their own packets, the AP applies the channel matrix to the received beams and separates the information that each uplink beam contains. The AP may also initiate Uplink multi-user transmissions to receive beamforming feedback information from all participating STAs as shown in Figure 7. Figure 6. Figure 7. Building on the existing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing OFDM digital modulation scheme that That is, it divides the existing Also borrowing from modern LTE terminology, the Based on multi-user traffic needs, the AP decides how to allocate the channel, always assigning all available RUs on the downlink.

It may allocate the whole channel to only one user at a time — just as Figure 8. A single user using the channel Vs.

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In dense user environments where many users would normally contend inefficiently for their turn to use the channel, this OFDMA mechanism now serves them simultaneously with a smaller — but dedicated — subchannel, thus improving the average throughput per user. Figure 9illustrates how an Note that the smallest division of the channel accommodates up to 9 users for every 20MHz of bandwidth. Figure 9. Subdividing Wi-Fi channels using various Resource Unit sizes. The following table shows the number of users that can now get frequency-multiplexed access when the RU type.

Table 2. Total number of RUs by channel bandwidth. It also contains power control information, such that individual users can increase or reduce their transmitted power, in an effort to equalize the power that the AP receives from all uplink users and improve reception of frames from nodes farther away.

The AP also instructs all users when to start and stop transmitting. As Figure 10depicts, the AP sends a multi-user uplink trigger frame that indicates to all users the exact moment at which they all start transmitting, and the exact duration of their frame, to ensure that they all finish transmitting simultaneously as well. Once the AP receives the frames from all users, it sends them back a block ACK to finish the operation.

Figure Coordinating uplink multi-user operation. One of the main goals of the With that goal in mind, the standard designers have specified that To improve the system level performance and the efficient use of spectrum resources in dense deployment scenarios, the STAs can identify signals from overlapping Basic Service Sets BSS and make decisions on medium contention and interference management based on this information.

Introduction to 802.11ax High-Efficiency Wireless

When an STA that is actively listening to the medium detects an The standard still has to define some of the mechanisms for ignoring traffic from overlapping BSSs, but the implementation could include raising the clear channel assessment signal detection SD threshold for inter-BSS frames, while maintaining a lower threshold for intra-BSS traffic see Figure When This adjustment improves system level performance and the use of spectrum resources. Furthermore, In addition to using CCA to determine if the medium is idle or busy for the current frame, the The NAV acts as a virtual carrier sense that ensures medium reservation for frames critical to operation of the This way the AP controls the level of contention and overlap among STAs needing access to the medium.

Example of Target Wake Time Broadcast operation.