In this chapter we will cover the steps involved in installing Xcode and writing and compiling a simple Objective-C program in this environment. Xcode may or may not be pre-installed on your Mac OS X system. To find out if you already have it, open the Finder and look for it in the Developer subfolder of the Applications folder. If the Developer folder does not exist, or does not contain Xcode then you will need to install it.
The best way to obtain Xcode is to download it from the Apple web site. In order to download Xcode 4. The download is over 3. Having successfully installed the SDK and Xcode, the next step is to launch it so that we can write and then create a sample iPhone application. To start up Xcode, open the Finder and search for Xcode. Since you will be making frequent use of this tool, take this opportunity to drag and drop it into your dock for easier access in the future.
Click on the Xcode icon in the dock to launch the tool.
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Once Xcode has loaded, and assuming this is the first time you have used Xcode on this system, you will be presented with the Welcome screen from which you are ready to proceed:. Click on the option to Create a new Xcode project to display the template selection screen. Within the template selection screen, select the Application entry listed beneath MacOS X in the left hand panel followed by Command Line Tool in the main panel:.
Click Next and on the resulting options panel name the project sampleApp and select Foundation from the Type menu. The easiest way to get Xcode is through the Mac App Store. Click the link to go to the listing.
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Just visit the Apple Developer page for Xcode. You can also check here for the full Apple Documentation for XCode. If your interface looks different, make sure you have Xcode 10 and not an earlier version.
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Keep in mind that you can adjust the size of each of those panes by hovering your cursor over the boundaries of each area and dragging. Then you can use the View buttons to hide those 2 panes to give your editor more visible space. In this pane, there are a bunch of different navigators that you can switch between using the Navigator selector bar refer to diagram. The three navigators that you will use a lot are the Project, Search and Issue navigators.
You can also right click on the project navigator and create new files or add existing files to your project. Or you can drag folders or files from your computer directly onto the project navigator and will popup a dialog asking how you want to add the files. If you double click a file instead, it will open a new window which can be useful when you have dual monitors.
The root node of the project navigator is your Xcode project file indicated by the blue icon. If you click that, the project properties will open in the editor area. It will also show yellow Warnings in the issue navigator. This is where all the coding happens. As mentioned in the project navigator section, when you click a file there, it will open the contents in this editor area for you to edit the contents. There are these little back and forward arrows in the upper left corner of the editor area. These guys are actually pretty useful. They act like the back and forward buttons on your browser and they let you navigate to previously viewed files.
Another way to quickly get to the file you need is to use the Jump Bar see diagram. The jump bar allows you to quickly drill down through your groups and find the file you need. It looks like a breadcrumb at the top of the editor area but when you click a segment of it, it will open up a menu with other groups in that hierarchy level:. That does it for navigation within the editor area however, it still has some tricks up its sleeve.
Add the following:. A fully-annotated version of the playground can be downloaded here. Now that you understand how to use URL to identify files and folders, close the playground. Selecting any item will give you more details about it. Download the starter app project , open it in Xcode and click the Play button in the toolbar, or press Command-R to build and run. Your first task is to let the user select a folder and then list its contents.
In ViewController. Build and run, click the Select Folder button and choose a folder. Confirm that the URL for the selected folder prints in the console. Click the button again to open the dialog,but this time click Cancel. This will not print a selected URL. Now that you can select a folder, your next job is to find the contents of that folder and display it.
The previous section of code populated a property named selectedFolder.
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Scroll to the top of the ViewController definition and check out the selectedFolder property. The key line here is the one that calls contentsOf folder:. Scroll down to the stub of this method, which is currently returning an empty array. Replace the entire function with the following:. The selectedFolder property sets the filesList property to the contents of the selected folder, but since you use a table view to show the contents, you need to define how to display each item.
You need to change that before anything will appear in the table. Now build and run, select a folder and you should see a list of files and folders appear — hurray! Open up the Finder and press Command-I to open a window with information about the file: creation date, modification date, size, permissions and so on. All that information, and more, is available to you through the FileManager class. Back in the app, still in ViewController.
This sets the property of the ViewController : selectedItem. Scroll back to the top and look at where selectedItem is defined. As with selectedFolder , a didSet observer is watching for changes to this property. When the property changes, and if the new value is not nil , the observer calls infoAbout url:. This is where you will retrieve the information for display.
Find infoAbout , which currently returns a boring static string, and replace it with the following:. In Unix systems, files and folders whose name starts with a period are invisible.
Go to contentsOf folder: and replace the line containing map with the following:. The above adds a filter that rejects hidden items if the showInvisibles property is not true. Otherwise the filter returns every item, including hidden items. Find the toggleShowInvisibles method of ViewController and insert this into the function:.
Build and run, select a folder and check and un-check the Show Invisible Files button. In the storyboard, the table view has been assigned a doubleAction that calls tableViewDoubleClicked. Find tableViewDoubleClicked and replace it with the following:. Build and run, select a folder containing other folders, and then double-click a folder in the list to drill down into it. Once you have implemented double-click to drill down, the next obvious step is to move back up the tree. This first checks to see whether the selectedFolder is the root folder. Editing selectedFolder will trigger the update as before.