Reuter set up his " Submarine Telegraph" office in October and negotiated a contract with the London Stock Exchange to provide stock prices from the continental exchanges in return for access to London prices, which he supplied to stockbrokers in Paris, France.
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In , Reuters in London was the first organization to report the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Reuters began to grow in the s, widening the range of its business products and expanding its global reporting network for media and economic services: key product launches included Equities , Dealing , Business Briefing, Reuters Television for the financial markets, Series and the Reuters Xtra service; the Thomson Corporation acquired Reuters Group PLC to form Thomson Reuters on April 17, Thomson Reuters operated under a dual-listed company structure and had two parent companies, both of which were publicly listed — Thomson Reuters Corporation and Thomson Reuters PLC.
On February 13, , Thomson Reuters announced it would cut 2, jobs to cut cost in its Legal and Risk division. On October 29, , Thomson Reuters announced it would cut another 3, jobs in those same three divisions; the Thomson-Reuters merger transaction was reviewed by the U. Department of Justice and by the European Commission. On February 19, , both the Department of Justice and the Commission cleared the transaction subject to minor divestments; the Department of Justice required the parties to sell copies of the data contained in the following products: Thomson's WorldScope, a global fundamentals product.
The proposed settlement further requires the licensing of related intellectual property, access to personnel, transitional support to ensure that the buyer of each set of data can continue to update its database so as to continue to offer users a viable and competitive product. The European Commission imposed similar divestments: according to the Commission's press release, "the parties committed to divest the databases containing the content sets of such financial information products, together with relevant assets and customer base as appropriate to allow purchasers of the databases and assets to establish themselves as a credible competitive force in the marketplace in competition with the merged entity, re-establishing the pre-merger rivalry in the respective fields.
In November , The European Commission opened formal anti-trust proceedings against Thomson Reuters concerning a potential infringement of the EC Treaty's rules on abuse of a dominant market position. The Commission investigated Thomson Reuters' practices in the area of real-time market datafeeds, in particular whether customers or competitors were prevented from translating Reuters Instrument Codes to alternative identification codes of other datafeed suppliers to the detriment of competition. In Dec. International Standard Serial Number An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine.
The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in and published as ISO in The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be or an X, is a check digit.
For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right. The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0.
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There is an online ISSN checker. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier , was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the s. In the s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred.
A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the s.
Founded as a branch of the University of Virginia in , it became an independent institution in ; the university is named after the founding father George Mason , a Virginia planter and politician who authored the Virginia Declaration of Rights , the basis for the U. Constitution's Bill of Rights. Mason operates four campuses in Virginia, the main campus being in Fairfax, with a fifth campus in Songdo , South Korea ; the university is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities — Very high research activity.
EagleBank Arena , a 10,seat arena and concert venue operated by the university, is located on the main Fairfax campus; the university sororities. The University of Virginia in Charlottesville created an extension center to serve Northern Virginia. John Norville Gibson Finley served as director. Seventeen freshmen students attended classes at University College in a small renovated elementary school building in Bailey's Crossroads starting in September In University College became George Mason College; the City of Fairfax purchased and donated acres of land just south of the city limits to the University of Virginia for the college's new site, now referred to as the Fairfax Campus.
The Fairfax campus construction planning that began in early showed visible results when the development of the first 40 acres of Fairfax Campus began in In the Fall of the new campus welcomed students. Thomson , with the backing of the University of Virginia, introduced a bill in the General Assembly to make George Mason College a four-year institution under the University of Virginia's direction; the measure, known as H 33, passed the Assembly and was approved on March 1, making George Mason College a degree-granting institution.
Thompson , met with Virginia Governor A. In , George W. Johnson was appointed to serve as the fourth president. Under his eighteen-year tenure, the university expanded both its physical size and program offerings at a tremendous rate. Shortly before Johnson's inauguration in April , Mason acquired the School of Law and the new Arlington Campus; the university became a doctoral institution. Toward the end of Johnson's term, Mason would be deep in planning for a third campus in Prince William County at Manassas.
Enrollment once again more than doubled from 10, during the fall of to 24, in the spring of Alan G. Merten was appointed president in , he believed that the university's location made it responsible for both contributing to and drawing from its surrounding communities—local and global.
George Mason was becoming acclaimed in all of these spheres. Enrollment increased from just over 24, students in to 33, during the spring semester of , making Mason Virginia's largest public university and gained prominence at the national level.
Both Cabrera and the board were well aware that Mason was part of a changing academia, full of challenges to the viability of higher education. In a resolution on August 17, , the board asked Dr. Cabrera to create a new strategic vision that wou. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the reference management software. For other uses of the word, see Endnote disambiguation.
Retrieved Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on Proprietary data formats may be legally defensible but open standards can be a better spur for innovation". The Quintessence of Ham. Archived from the original PDF on PC Mag. Ziff Davis, Inc. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. EndNote from Niles and Associates is a commercial personal DBMS tool explicitly customized for storing and retrieving scientific bibliographical records. Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original on July 20, Archived from the original on July 2, Archived from the original on April 28, Archived from the original on July 30, Archived from the original on July 19, Archived from the original on April 16, Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Archived from the original on May 4, Reference management software.
Category Comparison. Categories : Reference management software Bibliography file formats Clarivate Analytics. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Related Images. YouTube Videos. Headquarters at Bay Street, Toronto. The office previously served as the world headquarters for The Thomson Corporation. The story of Pocahontas , an ancestress of many of the First Families of Virginia , was romanticized by later artists.
Williamsburg was Virginia's capital from to George Mason University is a public research university with its main campus in Fairfax, Virginia. Al where appropriate. Year: Enter the year of publication as a four digit numeral e. The endnote style used will take care of formatting. It is best to enter the title capitalized as it will appear in the bibliography, although the output style can modify this. Short title field: Use the short title field to enter abbreviated versions of the regular title for in-text or footnote entries if an Endnote style is configured to use the short title field and that field is empty, the normal title field will be used instead.
Journal titles: Enter the full journal title. By default the journal title field is set to work with the journal term list. Subsequent occurrences of a journal title will automatically be completed. To accept a suggested change, press the tab key. If desired, enter the journal title abbreviated in the Alternate Journal field. Long Titles: Let the title wrap around to the next line, do not press enter at the end of the line.
Editions: Enter the exact information you would like to see in a bibliography e. Pages: Do not use commas within page number e. Page numbers may be entered as complete or abbreviated ranges. The style used to create the bibliography will format in the correct way. Keywords: Use to store keywords or subject headings that describe the content of the reference. Abstract: Used for a brief description of the content of the work.
Annotated bibliographies use the text contained in the Abstract field as the annotation. When importing records from databases information may be dumped into this field. Research Notes: If you regularly import records from databases you may find it easier to use the Research Notes field to include any personalized notes, to avoid conflict with information imported from database searches.
Saving and Closing References: References are automatically saved to a Library when they are closed. Be careful not to click on the Close button for the Library Window. Can be used to discard all changes made to a reference since it was last opened or saved. This command is not available after you close a reference.
The Reference Windows for each reference will be opened. To move between each reference click Window, then select the reference required. A maximum of 10 references can be opened at the one time. The most common methods of importing are: Direct export: Most databases allow you to automatically transfer references from the database into Endnote. Direct export is the simplest and easiest method available.
Import Filters: Some databases do not provide a direct export option. For these databases, you may be able to save references as a text file, then import into Endnote using an import filter. Endnote provides another feature, called online search, which makes it possible to search library catalogues such as NEWCAT directly from your Endnote Library. Check Exporting directly from databases for a list of direct export friendly databases. Using direct export is straightforward, and generally involves the following 3 steps: 1.
Searching a library database. Marking the references to be saved. If an Endnote Library is open, references are automatically imported into it. Otherwise, nominate the Endnote Library where the references will be transferred.
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Import Filters: Not all databases support Direct Export. Endnote uses import filters to interpret the information in a data file, and map that information to the corresponding fields within an Endnote record. Each import filter is designed to work with a particular database.
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A temporary library window will appear. If the catalogue is not listed there, click more Then choose from the Choose a Connection Window. The Search Panel at the top of the Library Window is now ready for you to enter your search terms. Select the fields to search and the appropriate Boolean Operator, then click. The Confirm Online Search Window will advise the number of results - click OK, or Cancel to return to the search window to refine the search strategy.
Click OK to confirm you want to discard references from the Online Search. You will be returned to your Library Window where a Copied References Group includes the references copied from the online search. No matter which method is used, problems can and do occur. It is important to check the quality of your references it is important to understand that importing is not possible from all databases, and even when it is possible, it is not always one hundred percent accurate. This means that it is essential to carefully check the references you have imported, and correct any mistakes or inaccuracies at the point of transfer.
This is very handy if you need to return to the database for any reason later on. Endnote assists you to do this via a number of additional commands that are available within Word when Endnote is installed. These commands allow you to switch between the two programs, and to easily insert references from an Endnote Library into a Word document. These commands are only active when you are using Word and Endnote together. Format Bibliography: Select to format, or re-format, a Word document. Return to Word: Returns you to Word. Adding Citations to Word Document: There are several methods for inserting references from your Library into a Word document.
For each of these methods, you must first position your cursor at the place in your Word document where you want the in-text citation to be inserted. Find Citation Command: This method is useful if you are unsure which of the references in your Library the correct one is. Other methods, such as copy and paste, and drag and drop, are also available for including references from your Library into a Word document.
Once a reference has been inserted, an in-text citation and bibliography entry will be created in your Word document. Word for Mac's styles let you apply formatting to selected text quickly and easily.
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You don't have to remember the font, points, and spacing each time. Create an index in a Word document by selecting the text you want to use as an index entry, and then inserting the index into your document. You can also. After a. Mac- only features included are a publishing layout view, which offers functionality.